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After the Arab Spring: Do Muslims Vote Islamic Now?

Kurzman_Turkoglu_platforms_rights_themesCharles Kurzman and Didem Türkoğlu, “After the Arab Spring: Do Muslims Vote Islamic Now?” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 26, No. 4, October 2015, pp. 100-109. “Do Muslims Vote Islamic?” asked an article by Charles Kurzman and Ijlal Naqvi in the April 2010 issue of the Journal of Democracy. The answer, at that time, appeared to be rarely. This essay presents updated data on Islamic political parties’ performance in parliamentary elections through the end of 2014, along with an expanded set of electoral platforms. Since 2011, the trend toward liberal themes has stalled, but Islamic parties have not fared much better in elections since the Arab Spring than before. More…

Data available in an Excel spreadsheet.

Votes Versus Rights

Charles Kurzman, “Votes Versus Rights: The Debate That’s Shaping the Outcome of the Arab Spring,” Foreign Policy “Democracy Lab,” February 10, 2012.

“Elections in Egypt, and throughout the Arab Spring, pose a classic dilemma of political theory: Do you support democracy, even if it means sacrificing some civil rights? Or do you support rights, even if it means stifling democracy?” More…

Do Muslims Vote Islamic?

Charles Kurzman and Ijlal Naqvi, “Do Muslims Vote Islamic?The Journal of Democracy, Vol. 21, No. 2, April 2010, pp. 50-63.

Project funded by the United States Institute of Peace, 2007-2008; Henry Luce Foundation, 2013-2014.

“If Muslim-majority countries hold free and fair (or at least competitive) elections, should we expect Islamic parties to dominate such contests? … It turns out that Islamic movements have entered the electoral fray quite often — more than 160 times over the past generation, in fact — and most have attracted less than 8 percent of the vote.” More…

Methodological details available in a working paper (March 17, 2009). Overview of findings available in The Islamists Are Not Coming, Foreign Policy, January/February 2010.

Islamic Party Platforms

Islamic parties participating in parliamentary elections since 1970:
Updated May 16, 2022.

Country Year Party Platform (English or French) Platform (local language) Notes
Afghanistan 2005 Hezb-e-Islami (Islamic Party) ? ?
Afghanistan 2018 Hezb-e-Islami (Islamic Party) ? ? Facebook page
Algeria 1991 al-Jabha al-Islamiyya li’l-Inqadh (Front Islamique du Salut, FIS) (Islamic Salvation Front) 1991
Algeria 1991 Harakat al-Mujtama’ al-Islami (Hims) (Movement of the Islamic Society) 1991
Algeria 1991 Harakat al-Nahda al-Islamiyya (Islamic Renaissance Movement) 1991
Algeria 1997 Harakat al-Nahda al-Islamiyya (Islamic Renaissance Movement) ? ?
Algeria 1997 Harakat Mujtama’ al-Silm (Hims) (Movement for the Society of Peace) ? ?
Algeria 2002 Harakat al-Nahda al-Islamiyya (Islamic Renaissance Movement) ? ?
Algeria 2002 Harakat al-Islah al-Watani (El-Islah) (Movement for National Reform) ? ?
Algeria 2002 Harakat Mujtama’ al-Silm (Hims) (Movement for the Society of Peace) ? ?
Algeria 2007 Harakat al-Nahda al-Islamiyya (Islamic Renaissance Movement) ? ? Election brochure
Algeria 2007 Harakat Mujtama’ al-Silm (Hims) (Movement for the Society of Peace) 2007 (French) (Word file)
Algeria 2007 Harakat al-Islah al-Watani (El-Islah) (Movement for National Reform) 2007 2004 Political Program
Leadership statement
Algeria 2012 Takatul al-Jaza’ir al-Hadara (Algerian Green Alliance) 2012
(draft translation)
2012 Alliance formed by Harakat Mujtama’ al-Salam (Movement of Society for Peace, or Hims); Harakat an-Nahda (Islamic Renaissance Movement, or Ennahda); and Harakat al-Islah al-Watani (Movement for National Reform, or Islah)
Algeria 2012 Jabhat al-`Adala wa’l-Tanmiyya (Front for Justice and Development) 2012
(draft translation)
2012
Algeria 2017 Harakat al-Nahda al-Islamiyya (Islamic Renaissance Movement)/Jabhat al-`Adala wa’l-Tanmiyya (Front for Justice and Development) ? ? Justice and Development Facebook page
Algeria 2017 Harakat Mujtama’ al-Silm (Hims) (Movement for the Society of Peace)/Jabhat al-Taqyir (Front pour Changement, Movement for Change) 2017
(Hims)
Movement for Change political platform
Algeria 2017 Harakat al-Islah al-Watani (El-Islah) (Movement for National Reform) ? ?
Bahrain 1973 Independent Islamists ? ?
Bahrain 2002 Independent Islamists ? ?
Bahrain 2002 Al-Rabita al-Islamiyya (The Islamic League) ? ?
Bahrain 2002 Jam’iyya al-Asala al-Islamiyya (Original Islamic Society) ? ?
Bahrain 2002 Jam’iyyat al-Minbar al-Watani al-Islami (National Islamic Tribune Society) ? ?
Bahrain 2002 Jam’iyyat al-Wifaq al-Watani al-Islami (National Islamic Reconciliation Society) X X Boycott.
Bahrain 2002 Jam’iyyat al-‘Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Society) X X Boycott
Bahrain 2006 Al-Rabita al-Islamiyya (The Islamic League) ? ?
Bahrain 2006 al-Shura al-Islamiyya (The Islamic Council) ? ?
Bahrain 2006 Jam’iyya al-Asala al-Islamiyya (Original Islamic Society) ? ?
Bahrain 2006 Jam’iyyat al-Minbar al-Watani al-Islami (National Islamic Tribune Society) ? ?
Bahrain 2006 Jam’iyyat al-Wifaq al-Watani al-Islami (National Islamic Reconciliation Society) ? ?
Bahrain 2006 Jam’iyyat al-‘Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Society) ? ?
Bahrain 2010 Jam’iyya al-Asala al-Islamiyya (Original Islamic Society) 2010
(partial draft translation)
2010 List of goals
Bahrain 2010 Jam’iyyat al-Minbar al-Watani al-Islami (National Islamic Tribune Society) 2010
(draft translation)
2010 List of goals
Bahrain 2010 Jam’iyyat al-Wifaq al-Watani al-Islami (National Islamic Reconciliation Society) 2010
(draft translation)
2010
Bahrain 2010 Jam’iyyat al-‘Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Society) 2010
(draft translation)
2010 Boycotted election.
Bahrain 2014 Jam’iyya al-Asala al-Islamiyya (Original Islamic Society) ? ?
Bahrain 2014 Jam’iyyat al-Minbar al-Watani al-Islami (National Islamic Tribune Society) 2014
Bahrain 2014 Jam’iyyat al-Wifaq al-Watani al-Islami (National Islamic Reconciliation Society) ? ? Boycott
Bahrain 2014 Jam’iyyat al-‘Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Society) ? ? Banned
Bahrain 2018 Jam’iyyat al-Minbar al-Watani al-Islami (National Islamic Tribune Society) ? ? Website. 2014 electoral platform still on website in November 2018.
Bahrain 2018 Jam’iyyat al-Wifaq al-Watani al-Islami (National Islamic Reconciliation Society) Banned
Bahrain 2018 Jam’iyyat al-‘Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Society) Banned
Bangladesh 1979 Muslim League & Islamic Democratic League 1979 JI no longer banned, but some JI members participating as part of the IDL-R
Bangladesh 1986 Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (Islamic Society of Bangladesh) ? ?
Bangladesh 1988 Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (Islamic Society of Bangladesh) X X JI did not participate
Bangladesh 1991 Islami Oikkya Jote (Islamic Unity Front) ? ?
Bangladesh 1991 Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (Islamic Society of Bangladesh) 1991 1991
Bangladesh 1996 Islami Oikkya Jote (Islamic Unity Front) ? ?
Bangladesh 1996 Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (Islamic Society of Bangladesh) 1996 1992-1996 pamphlets
Bangladesh 2001 Islami Oikkya Jote (Islamic Unity Front) ? ?
Bangladesh 2001 Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (Islamic Society of Bangladesh) 2001
Bangladesh 2008 Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (Islamic Society of Bangladesh) 2008 2008
Bangladesh 2008 Islami Oikkya Jote (Islamic Unity Front) ? ?
Bangladesh 2014 Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (Islamic Society of Bangladesh) X X Barred from national elections by Supreme Court in August 2013.
Bangladesh 2014 Islami Oikkya Jote (Islamic Unity Front) ? ?
Bangladesh 2018 Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (Islamic Society of Bangladesh) X X Boycott. Website.
Bangladesh 2018 Islami Oikkya Jote (Islamic Unity Front) ? ?
Bangladesh 2018 Islami Andolan Bangladesh (Islamic Movement of Bangladesh) ? ? Website.
Comoros 1996 Front National pour la Justice (National Front for Justice) ? ?
Egypt 1984 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood) with Hizb al-Wafd al-Jadid (New Wafd Party) ? ?
Egypt 1987 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood) with Hizb al-‘Amal (Labour Party) 1987
Egypt 1990 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood) X X MB did not participate
Egypt 1995 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood) 1995 Statement on Democracy
Egypt 2000 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood) 2000 (French)
Egypt 2005 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood) 2005
Egypt 2010 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood) 2010
(draft translation)
2010
Egypt 2011 Hizb al-Hurriya wa al-‘Adala (Freedom and Justice Party) 2011 (partial draft translation) 2011 Affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood. Part of al-Itilaf al-Dimuqrati Min Ajl al-Misr (Democratic Alliance for Egypt)
Egypt 2011 Hizb al-Asala (Authenticity Party) 2011
(draft translation)
2011 Part of the Shabakat “al-Islamiyun” (Islamist Alliance)
Egypt 2011 Hizb al-Banna’ wa al-Tanmiyya (Party of Construction and Development) 2011
(draft translation)
2011 Facebook. Part of the Shabakat “al-Islamiyun” (Islamist Alliance)
Egypt 2011 Hizb al-Fadyla (Virtue Party) 2011
(draft translation)
2011 Part of the Shabakat “al-Islamiyun” (Islamist Alliance)
Egypt 2011 Hizb al-Islah wa al-Nahda (Party of Justice and Renaissance) 2011
(draft translation)
2011
Egypt 2011 Hizb al-Nour (Party of Light) 2011
(draft translation)
2011 Part of the Shabakat “al-Islamiyun” (Islamist Alliance)
Egypt 2011 Hizb al-Tayar al-Masry (Egyptian Current Party) 2011
(draft translation)
2011 Part of the “Al-Thawra Mustimara” (The Revolution Continues) Alliance.
Egypt 2011 Hizb al-Wasat (Center Party) 2011
(draft translation)
2009
Egypt 2015 Hizb al-Nour (Party of Light) 2015 Arabic Facebook page, English Facebook page
Egypt 2015 Hizb al-Banna’ wa al-Tanmiyya (Party of Construction and Development) X X Boycott. Platform on website not changed since 2011.
Egypt 2015 Hizb al-Hurriya wa al-‘Adala (Freedom and Justice Party) X X Banned. Prior to ban, affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood.
Egypt 2015 Hizb al-Misr al-Qawiya (Strong Egypt Party) X X Boycott. Facebook page.
Egypt 2015 Hizb al-Wasat (Center Party) X X Boycott. Platform on website not changed since 2011.
Indonesia 1971 Nahdatul Ulama (Revival of the Ulama) ? ?
Indonesia 1971 Partai Muslimin Indonesia (Muslim Party of Indonesia) ? ?
Indonesia 1971 Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia (Indonesia Islamic Union Party) ? ?
Indonesia 1971 Perti (Islamic Educators Association) ? ?
Indonesia 1977 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party) ? ?
Indonesia 1982 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party) ? ?
Indonesia 1987 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party) ? ?
Indonesia 1992 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party) ? ?
Indonesia 1997 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party) ? ?
Indonesia 1999 Partai Keadilan (Justice Party) 1998 (Partial draft translation) 1998
Indonesia 1999 Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN) (National Mandate Party) 1998 (Partial draft translation) 1998
Indonesia 1999 Partai Bulan Bintang (PBB) (Crescent Star Party) ? ?
Indonesia 1999 Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB) National Awakening Party ? ?
Indonesia 1999 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party) ? ?
Indonesia 2004 Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) (Prosperous Justice Party) ? ?
Indonesia 2004 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party) ? ?
Indonesia 2004 Partai Bulan Bintang (PBB) (Crescent Star Party) ? ?
Indonesia 2004 Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB) (National Awakening Party) ? ?
Indonesia 2004 Partai Bintang Reformasi (PBR) (Reform Star Party) ? ?
Indonesia 2004 Partai Persatuan Nahdlatul Ummah Indonesia (NU) (Indonesian Nahdlatul Community Party) ? ?
Indonesia 2009 Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN) (National Mandate Party) ? ? Party website has no platform available.
Indonesia 2009 Partai Bintang Reformasi (PBR) (Reform Star Party) 2009
(draft translation)
2009 Vision statement rather than a full program.
Indonesia 2009 Partai Bulan Bintang (PBB) (Crescent Star Party) 2009
(draft translation)
2009
Indonesia 2009 Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) (Prosperous Justice Party) 2009
Indonesia 2009 Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB) (National Awakening Party) 2009
(draft translation)
2009
Indonesia 2009 Partai Kebangkitan Nasional Ulama (PKNU) (Ulema National Awakening Party) 2009
(draft translation)
2009 Vision statement rather than a full program
Indonesia 2009 Partai Matahari Bangsa (PMB) (National Sun Party) 2009
(draft translation)
2009
Indonesia 2009 Partai Persatuan Nahdlatul Ummah Indonesia (PPNUI) (Indonesian Nahdlatul Community Party) 2009
(draft translation)
2009 Vision statement rather than a full program
Indonesia 2009 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party) ? ?
Indonesia 2014 Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB) (National Awakening Party) 2014 Same platform as 2009.
Indonesia 2014 Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) (Prosperous Justice Party) 2014 Same platform as 2009.
Indonesia 2014 Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN) (National Mandate Party) 2014 Brief vision/mission statement.
Indonesia 2014 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party) 2014
Indonesia 2014 Partai Bulan Bintang (PBB) (Crescent Star Party) 2014 Brief vision/mission statement.
Indonesia 2019 Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB) (National Awakening Party) 2019 Same platform as 2009 and 2014.
Indonesia 2019 Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) (Prosperous Justice Party) 2019 Same platform as 2009 and 2014.
Indonesia 2019 Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN) (National Mandate Party) 2019 Brief statement of basic principles.
Indonesia 2019 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party) 2019 Virtually the same platform as 2014.
Indonesia 2019 Partai Bulan Bintang (PBB) (Crescent Star Party) 2019 Brief vision/mission statement.
Iraq 2005 al-Ittihad al-‘Iraqi al-Muwahhad (Unified Iraqi Coalition) 2004
Iraq 2005 Jabhat al-Tawafuq al-‘Iraqiyya (Iraqi Accord Front) 2005 December 2005 parliamentary election, not January 2005 transitional assembly election.
Iraq 2005 Yekgirtuy Islami Kurdistan (Kurdistan Islamic Union) 2005
Iraq 2010 al-Hizb al-Islami al-Iraqi (Iraqi Islamic Party) 2010
(draft translation)
2010 Part of Jabhat al-Tawafuq al-Iraqiyya (Iraqi Accord Front), 2010.
Iraq 2010 al-I’tilaf al-Watani al-‘Iraqi (Iraqi National Alliance) 2010
(draft translation)
2010
Iraq 2010 Yekgirtuy Islami Kurdistan (Kurdistan Islamic Union) 2010 2010 (Kurdish),
2010 (Arabic)
Iraq 2010 Komele Islami le Kurdistan/Iraq (Islamic Group in Kurdistan/Iraq) ? ?
Iraq 2014 Sadrist movement ? ? Website
Iraq 2014 I’tilaf al-Muwatin (Citizen Alliance) 2014 Affiliated with the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq
Iraq 2014 al-Hizb al-Islami al-‘Iraqi (Iraqi Islamic Party) 2014 Same as 2010 platform
Iraq 2014 Hizb al-Fadhila al-Islami (Islamic Virtue Party) ? ? Website
Iraq 2014 Yekgirtuy Islami Kurdistan (Kurdistan Islamic Union) ? ? Website
Iraq 2014 Komele Islami le Kurdistan/Iraq (Islamic Group in Kurdistan/Iraq) ? ? Website
Iraq 2018 Saairun (Forward; Alliance Toward Reform) ? ? Coalition including Sadrist movement, as well as Iraqi Communist Party and others.
Iraq 2018 I’tilaf al-Fatah (Conquest Alliance) ? ? Coalition including Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq and others.
Iraq 2018 Yekgirtuy Islami Kurdistan (Kurdistan Islamic Union) 2018
Iraq 2018 Komele Islami le Kurdistan/Iraq (Islamic Group in Kurdistan/Iraq) ? ? Website
Iraq 2021 Sadrist movement ? ? Website
Iraq 2021 Tahaluf al-Fatah (Conquest Alliance) ? 2021 principles and selected positions Facebook page
Iraq 2021 Yekgirtuy Islami Kurdistan (Kurdistan Islamic Union) 2021 Same as 2018
Iraq 2021 Komele Dadgere Kurdistan (Kurdistan Justice Group) ? ? Formerly known as the Islamic Group in Kurdistan/Iraq.
Israel 2021 Al-Qa’ima al-‘Arabiyya al-Muwahhada (also known in Hebrew as HaReshima HaAravit HaMe’uhedet, or Ra’am) (United Arab List) ? ? Facebook page
Jordan 1989 Jama’at al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin (Society of Muslim Brothers) & allied independents 1989
Jordan 1993 Jabhat al-‘Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Front) 1993 (Part 1)
1993 (Part 2)
Jordan 1997 Jabhat al-‘Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Front) X X Boycott
Jordan 2003 Jabhat al-‘Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Front) 2003
Jordan 2007 Jabhat al-‘Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Front) 2007 Decided to participate very late in the election cycle.
Jordan 2010 Jabhat al-‘Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Front) ? ? Boycott
Jordan 2013 Jabhat al-‘Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Front) ? ? Boycott
Jordan 2016 Jabhat al-‘Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Front) 2016 Website. Part of al-Thalaf al-Watani li’l-Islah (National Coalition for Reform)
Jordan 2016 Hizb al-Wasat al-Islami (Islamic Center Party) 2016
Jordan 2016 Al-Mubadara al-Urdaniyya li’l-Bana – Zamzam (Jordanian Initiative for Building – Zamzam) ? ? Facebook page
Jordan 2020 Jabhat al-‘Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Front) ? ?
Kuwait 1981 Al-Tajammu’ al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) ? ?
Kuwait 1981 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brothers) ? ?
Kuwait 1985 Al-Tajammu’ al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) ? ?
Kuwait 1985 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brothers) ? ?
Kuwait 1992 Al-Tajammu’ al-Islami al-Sha’bi (Popular Islamic Association) ? 1992
Kuwait 1992 Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement) ? ?
Kuwait 1996 Al-Haraka al-Salafiyya (Salafi Movement) ? ?
Kuwait 1996 Al-Tajammu’ al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) ? ?
Kuwait 1996 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brothers) ? ?
Kuwait 1999 Al-Haraka al-Salafiyya (Salafi Movement) ? ?
Kuwait 1999 Al-Tajammu’ al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) ? ?
Kuwait 1999 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brothers) ? ?
Kuwait 2003 Al-Haraka al-Salafiyya (Salafi Movement) ? ?
Kuwait 2003 Al-Tajammu’ al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) 2003
Kuwait 2003 Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement) 2003
Kuwait 2006 Al-Haraka al-Salafiyya (Salafi Movement) ? ?
Kuwait 2006 Al-Tajammu’ al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) ? ?
Kuwait 2006 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brothers) ? ?
Kuwait 2008 Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement) 2008
Kuwait 2008 Hizb al-Umma (Umma Party) ? ?
Kuwait 2008 Al-Tajammu’ al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) 2008
Kuwait 2008 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brothers) ? ?
Kuwait 2008 Independent Islamists ? ?
Kuwait 2009 Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement) ? ?
Kuwait 2009 Al-Tajammu’ al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) ? ?
Kuwait 2009 Hizb al-Umma (Umma Party) Boycott
Kuwait 2009 Independent Sunni Islamists ? ?
Kuwait 2012 (February) Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement) 2012
(draft translation)
2012
Kuwait 2012 (February) Al-Tajammu’ al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) ? ?
Kuwait 2012 (February) Hizb al-Umma (Umma Party) Boycott
Kuwait 2012 (December) Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement) Boycott
Kuwait 2012 (December) Al-Tajammu’ al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) ? ? Boycott
Kuwait 2012 (December) Hizb al-Umma (Umma Party) Boycott
Kuwait 2013 Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement) ? ? Boycott
Kuwait 2013 Al-Tajammu’ al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) ? ?
Kuwait 2013 Hizb al-Umma (Umma Party) ? ?
Kuwait 2016 Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement) ? ? Website
Kuwait 2016 Al-Tajammu’ al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) 2016
Kuwait 2020 Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement) ? ? Website
Kuwait 2020 Al-Tajammu’ al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) 2020
Lebanon 1992 Hizbullah (Party of God) 1992 1992
Lebanon 1992 al-Jama’a al-Islamiyya (The Islamic Society) ? ?
Lebanon 1992 Jami’at al-Mashari’ al-Khayriyya al-Islamiyya (The Association of Islamic Charitable Projects) ? ?
Lebanon 1996 Hizbullah (Party of God) 1996 1996
Lebanon 1996 al-Jama’a al-Islamiyya (The Islamic Society) ? ?
Lebanon 1996 Jami’at al-Mashari’ al-Khayriyya al-Islamiyya (The Association of Islamic Charitable Projects) ? ?
Lebanon 2000 Hizbullah (Party of God) 2000 2000
Lebanon 2000 al-Jama’a al-Islamiyya (The Islamic Society) ? ?
Lebanon 2005 Hizbullah (Party of God) 2005
Lebanon 2005 al-Jama’a al-Islamiyya (The Islamic Society) X X Boycott
Lebanon 2009 Hizbullah (Party of God) 2009 2009
Lebanon 2009 al-Jama’a al-Islamiyya (The Islamic Society) ? ?
Lebanon 2018 Hizbullah (Party of God) 2018
Lebanon 2018 al-Jama’a al-Islamiyya (The Islamic Society) ? ? 2001 political program
Lebanon 2022 Hizbullah (Party of God) 2022
Lebanon 2022 al-Jama’a al-Islamiyya (The Islamic Society) ? ? 2001 political program
Libya 2012 al-‘Adala wa al-Bina (Justice and Construction) 2012
(draft translation)
2012
Libya 2012 Hizb al-Watan (The Nation Party) 2012
(draft translation of video)
? Webpage for platform is blank. Short video describes the platform.
Malaysia 1969 Pan-Malayan Islamic Party 1967 The Objects of the Pan-Malayan Islamic Party
Malaysia 1974 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS) (Islamic Party of Malaysia), as part of the Barisan Nasional (National Front) ? ? PAS was part of the National Front for the 1974 election.
Malaysia 1978 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS) (Islamic Party of Malaysia) 1978
Malaysia 1982 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS) (Islamic Party of Malaysia) ? ?
Malaysia 1986 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS) (Islamic Party of Malaysia) ? ?
Malaysia 1990 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS) (Islamic Party of Malaysia) ? ?
Malaysia 1995 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS) (Islamic Party of Malaysia) ? ?
Malaysia 1999 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS) (Islamic Party of Malaysia), as part of Barisan Alternatif (Alternative Front) 1999 Coalition Platform (Part 1 and Part 2) 1999 Coalition Platform President’s message accompanying the manifesto
Malaysia 2004 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS) (Islamic Party of Malaysia), as part of Barisan Alternatif (Alternative Front) 2004 Coalition Platform PAS separately released The Islamic State Document
Malaysia 2008 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS) (Islamic Party of Malaysia) 2008 2008 In addition to their own manifesto, PAS also signed onto a coalition known as Barisan Rakyat (People’s Front), with the following platforms: The People’s Declaration (Deklarasi Rakyat) and The People’s Voice
Malaysia 2013 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS) (Islamic Party of Malaysia) 2013 (joint manifesto of Pakatan Rayat) 2013 (joint manifesto of Pakatan Rakyat) PAS was part of the Pakatan Rakyat (People’s Alliance).
Malaysia 2018 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS) (Islamic Party of Malaysia) 2018 PAS was the leading party in the Malaysia Sejahtera (Prosperous Malaysia) coalition.
Malaysia 2018 Parti Amanah Negara (Amanah) (National Trust Party) 2018 (joint manifesto of Pakatan Harapan) Mission, vision, goals statements. Amanah was part of the Pakatan Harapan (Alliance of Hope).
Maldives 2009 Adhaalath Paatee (Justice Party) ? ?
Maldives 2009 Islamik Dimokretik Paatee (Islamic Democratic Party) 2008
Maldives 2014 Adhaalath Paatee (Justice Party) ? ? Webpage
Maldives 2019 Adhaalath Paatee (Justice Party) ? ? Webpage
Mauritania 2013 Al-Tajammu’ al-Watani li’l-Islah wa al-Tanmiyya (Tewassoul) (National Rally for Reform and Development) Intellectual vision
Mauritania 2018 Al-Tajammu’ al-Watani li’l-Islah wa al-Tanmiyya (Tewassoul) (National Rally for Reform and Development) 2017 program 2017 policy document
Morocco 1993 Mouvement Populaire Démocratique et Constitutionnel (Constitutional and Democratic Popular Movement) X X Proto-PJD denied participation
Morocco 1997 Mouvement Populaire Démocratique et Constitutionnel (Constitutional and Democratic Popular Movement) ? ? Proto-PJD
Morocco 2002 Hizb al-‘Adala wa’l-Tanmiyya (Justice and Development Party) 2002
Morocco 2007 Hizb al-‘Adala wa’l-Tanmiyya (Justice and Development Party) 2007 (French) 2007
Morocco 2007 Hizb al-Nahda wa’l-Fadila (Party of Renaissance and Virtue) 2007 (French)
Morocco 2007 Hizb al-Nahda wa’l-Fadila (Party of Renaissance and Virtue) ? ?
Morocco 2011 Hizb al-‘Adala wa’l-Tanmiyya (Justice and Development Party) 2011
(draft translation)
2011 Summary
Morocco 2011 Hizb al-Nahda wa’l-Fadila (Party of Renaissance and Virtue) 2011
(draft translation)
2009
Morocco 2016 Hizb al-‘Adala wa’l-Tanmiyya (Justice and Development Party) 2016
(French summary)
2016
Morocco 2016 Hizb al-Nahda wa’l-Fadila (Party of Renaissance and Virtue) ? ?
Pakistan 1970 Jamaat-e-Islami (Islamic Society) 1969
Pakistan 1970 Jamiat-e-Ulema-i-Islam (Society of Religious Scholars of Islam) ? ?
Pakistan 1970 Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Islam (Society of Religious Scholars of Islam) / Jamaat-e-Ahl-e-Hadith (Society of the Family of Hadith) ? ?
Pakistan 1970 Markazi Jamiat-e-Ulema-e-Pakistan (Central Society of Religious Scholars of Pakistan) ? ?
Pakistan 1977 Pakistan National Alliance ? ? Including Pakistan Muslim League and Jamaat-e-Islami
Pakistan 1985 Jamaat-e-Islami (Islamic Society) ? ? The JI were the only party allowed to participate as a political organization in these otherwise non-party elections
Pakistan 1988 Jamaat-e-Islami (Islamic Society) 1988 Coalition Platform Part of the Islami Jamhoori Ittehad (Islamic Democratic Alliance) with the Pakistan Muslim League
Pakistan 1988 Jamiat-e-Ulema-i-Islam (JUI) (Society of Religious Scholars of Islam) ? ?
Pakistan 1988 Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Islam Fazl (JUI-F) (Society of Religious Scholars of Islam, Fazl Group) ? ?
Pakistan 1990 Jamaat-e-Islami (Islamic Society) ? ? Part of the Islami Jamhoori Ittehad (Islamic Democratic Alliance) with the Pakistan Muslim League
Pakistan 1990 Jamiat-e-Ulema-i-Islam (JUI) (Society of Religious Scholars of Islam) ? ?
Pakistan 1993 Jamaat-e-Islami (Islamic Society) ? ? Part of the Pakistan Islamic Front
Pakistan 1993 Islamic Jamhoori Mahaz (Islamic Democratic Front) ? ?
Pakistan 1993 Mutahida Deeni Mahaz (United Religious Front) ? ?
Pakistan 1997 Jamaat-e-Islami (Islamic Society) X X Boycott statement
Pakistan 1997 Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Islam Fazl (JUI-F) (Society of Religious Scholars of Islam, Fazl Group) ? ?
Pakistan 2002 Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (United Action Council) 2002 (15-point manifesto) Alliance of six Islamist parties including the Jamaat-e-Islami
Pakistan 2008 Jamaat-e-Islami (Islamic Society) X X JI boycott
Pakistan 2008 Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Islam Fazl (JUI-F) (Society of Religious Scholars of Islam, Fazl Group) ? ?
Pakistan 2013 Jamaat-e-Islami (Islamic Society) 2013 2013
Pakistan 2013 Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Islam Fazl (JUI-F) (Society of Religious Scholars of Islam, Fazl Group) 2013 1986/2013
Pakistan 2013 Muttahida Deeni Mahaz (United Religious Front) ? ? Six-party alliance (Facebook page): Jamiat-e-Ulema Islam – Samiul Haq, Jamiat-e-Ulema-e-Pakistan Noorani, Pakistan Rah-e-Haq Party, Jamiat Ahle Hadith, Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat, Jamiat-e-Ulema-e-Pakistan
Pakistan 2013 Islami Inqalab Party (Islamic Revolution Party) ? ? Facebook
Pakistan 2013 Islami Nazaryati Tehreek Pakistan (Islamic Movement of Pakistan) 2013 (summary) 2013 Booklet and constitution also available on same page.
Pakistan 2013 Jamiat Ulama-e-Islam Nazaryati Pakistan (Society of Religious Scholars of Islam – Nazaryati Pakistan) ? ? Blog
Pakistan 2013 Jamiat Ulama-e-Pakistan (Niazi) ? ?
Pakistan 2018 Muttahida Majlis-i-Amal (United Council of Action) (MMA) 2018 Five-party alliance: Jamaat Ulama-i-Islam, Jamaat-i-Islami, Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan (Fazl), Tehreek-i-Islami Pakistan, and Markazi Jamiat Ahle Hadith
Pakistan 2018 Allah-o-Akbar Tehreek Pakistan (“God Is Greatest” Movement of Pakistan) 2016 Running candidates from Milli Muslim League (manifesto and English-language objectives resolution)
Pakistan 2018 Tehreek-e-Labbaik Ya Rasul Allah Pakistan (“Here I Am, O Messenger of God” Movement of Pakistan) (TLP) 2018
Pakistan 2018 Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam Nazaryati (Society of Religious Scholars of Islam, Nazaryati Group) ? Facebook page
Pakistan 2018 Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam Sami (Society of Religious Scholars of Islam, Sami-ul-Haq Group) ? ?
Pakistan 2018 Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan Noorani (Society of Religious Scholars of Pakistan, Noorani Group) ? ? Facebook page
Pakistan 2018 Pakistan Rah-e-Haq Party (Pakistan True Path Party) ? ? Facebook page
Palestine 2006 Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya (Hamas) (Islamic Resistance Movement) 2006 (abbreviated) 2006
Somalia 2012 Xisbiga Nabadda Iyo Horumarka (Peace and Development Party, PDP) 2011
Somalia 2016 Xisbiga Nabadda Iyo Horumarka (Peace and Development Party, PDP) Same as 2011 platform?
Sudan 1968 Hizb al-Umma, Janub (Nation Party, South) ? ?
Sudan 1968 Hizb al-Umma, Imam (Nation Party, Imam) ? ?
Sudan 1968 Hizb al-Umma, Sadiq (Nation Party, Sadiq) ? 1965
Sudan 1986 Al-Jabha al-Islamiyya al-Qaumiyya (National Islamic Front) ? ?
Sudan 1986 Hizb al-Umma al-Jadid (New Nation Party) ? 1985
Sudan 2010 Hizb al-Mu’tamar al-Watani al-Sudani (National Congress Party of Sudan) 2010
Sudan 2010 Hizb al-Umma al-Qaumi al-Sudan (National Umma Party – Sudan) 2010
(draft translation)
2010
Sudan 2010 al-Mu’tamar al-Sha`bi (Popular Congress) 2010
(draft translation)
2005
Sudan 2015 Hizb al-Mu’tamar al-Watani al-Sudani (National Congress Party of Sudan) 2010
(draft translation)
2015
Sudan 2015 Hizb al-Umma al-Qaumi al-Sudan (National Umma Party – Sudan) X X Boycott
Sudan 2015 al-Mu’tamar al-Sha`bi (Popular Congress) X X Boycott
Tajikistan 1995 Hizbi Nahzati Islomi Tojikiston (Party of the Islamic Front of Tajikistan, also known as Islamic Renaissance Party) X X Boycott
Tajikistan 2000 Hizbi Nahzati Islomi Tojikiston (Party of the Islamic Front of Tajikistan, also known as Islamic Renaissance Party) ? ?
Tajikistan 2005 Hizbi Nahzati Islomi Tojikiston (Party of the Islamic Front of Tajikistan, also known as Islamic Renaissance Party) 2005 This program is only a summary.
Tajikistan 2010 Hizbi Nahzati Islomi Tojikiston (Party of the Islamic Front of Tajikistan, also known as Islamic Renaissance Party) ? ? See list of candidates here.
Tunisia 1989 Hizb an-Nahda (Renaissance Party) ? ?
Tunisia 2011 Hizb an-Nahda (Renaissance Party) 2011 (summary) 2011 (Part 1, Part 2)
Tunisia 2011 Hizb al-‘Adl wa al-Tanmiyya (Party of Justice and Development) (PJD) 2011
(draft translation)
2011 Facebook page
Tunisia 2011 Hizb al-‘Adala wa al-Tanmiyya (Justice and Development Party) (JPD) ? ? Listing at Partistunisie.com
Tunisia 2011 Hizb al-Haraka al-Tunisiyya li’l-‘Amal al-Magharibi (Tunisian Movement for Maghrebi Action) (MTAM) 2011
(draft translation of video)
? Facebook page
Tunisia 2011 Hizb al-Islah wa al-Tanmiyya (Party of Reform and Development) (PRD) 2011 (French), 2011
(draft translation, English)
2011
Tunisia 2011 Hizb al-Karama wa al-Musawah (Party of Dignity and Equality) (PDE) 2011
Tunisia 2011 Hizb al-Karama wa al-Tanmiyya (Party of Dignity and Development) (PDD) 2011
(draft translation)
2011 Facebook page
Tunisia 2011 Hizb al-Muhafizin al-Taqaddumiyin (Progressive Conservative Party) (PCP) 2011
(draft translation)
2011
Tunisia 2011 Hizb al-Umma al-Tunisi (Tunisian Nation Party) (PTN) ? ?
Tunisia 2011 Hizb al-Wahda wa al-Islah (Party of Unity and Reform) (PUR) ? ?
Tunisia 2011 al-Liqa’ al-Islahi al-Dimuqrati (Democratic Reformist Encounter) (RRD) 2007
Tunisia 2014 Hizb an-Nahda (Renaissance Party) 2014
Tunisia 2014 Hizb Jabhat al-Islah al-Islamiyya al-Tunisiyya (Tunisian Islamic Reform Front) 2011
(draft translation)
2012
Tunisia 2019 Hizb an-Nahda (Renaissance Party) 2019
Tunisia 2019 I’tilaf al-Karama (Dignity Coalition) Website, Facebook page
Turkey 1973 Milli Selâmet Partisi (National Salvation Party) ? ? Founding statement: Milli Görüş (Part 1 and Part 2)
Turkey 1977 Milli Selâmet Partisi (National Salvation Party) ? ?
Turkey 1983 X X X
Turkey 1987 Refah Partisi (Welfare Party) ? ? Pamphlet: Tek Cözüm
Turkey 1991 Refah Partisi (Welfare Party) 1991 (Part 1 and Part 2)
Turkey 1995 Refah Partisi (Welfare Party) ? ? Pamphlet: İşte Memleketin Hikayesi
Turkey 1999 Fazilet Partisi (Virtue Party) 1998
Turkey 2002 Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi (AKP) (Justice and Development Party) 2002 Original party programme (English)
Turkey 2002 Saadet Partisi (Felicity Party) 2002 Original party program
Turkey 2007 Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi (AKP) (Justice and Development Party) 2007
Turkey 2007 Büyük Birlik Partisi (BBP, Great Union Party) ? ? Program
Turkey 2007 Saadet Partisi (Felicity Party) 2007 (Part A and Part B)
Turkey 2011 Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi (AKP) (Justice and Development Party) 2011 (partial draft translation) 2011
Turkey 2011 Büyük Birlik Partisi (BBP, Great Union Party) 2011 Program truncated from 2007
Turkey 2011 Saadet Partisi (Felicity Party) 2011
(draft translation)
2011 Alternative formatting
Turkey 2015 (June) Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi (AKP) (Justice and Development Party) 2015 (June) Vision statement in Turkish and English
Turkey 2015 (June) Saadet Partisi (Felicity Party)/Büyük Birlik Partisi (BBP, Great Union Party) 2015 (June) (SP) Millî İttifak (National Alliance). BBP program same as 2011.
Turkey 2015 (November) Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi (AKP) (Justice and Development Party) 2015 (November) Party program (English, Turkish)
Turkey 2015 (November) Büyük Birlik Partisi (BBP, Great Union Party) ? ? Program same as 2011 and June 2015
Turkey 2015 (November) Saadet Partisi (Felicity Party) 2015 (November)
Turkey 2018 Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi (AKP) (Justice and Development Party) 2018 Party program (Turkish)
Turkey 2018 Büyük Birlik Partisi (BBP, Great Union Party) 2017
Turkey 2018 Saadet Partisi (Felicity Party) 2018
Yemen 1993 Tajammu’ al-Yamani li’l-Islah (Yemeni Association for Reform) 1993 1994 political platform
Yemen 1997 Tajammu’ al-Yamani li’l-Islah (Yemeni Association for Reform) 1997 1997
Yemen 2003 Tajammu’ al-Yamani li’l-Islah (Yemeni Association for Reform) 2003
(draft translation)
2003

Coding questions for party platforms:
1. Does the party call for a violent revolution against the state?
2. Does the party support democracy? Do they define democracy?
3. Does the party require the implementation of the sharia? What is their definition of the sharia? Who will adjudicate disputes over the meaning of the sharia?
4. What are the top three issues in the party platform?
5. Where does the party stand on women’s rights and the implementation of Islamic family law?
6. How does the party propose to treat minorities?
7. Does the party platform propose any welfare programs such as pensions, poverty relief, and medical care for those in need?
8. Is jihad mentioned? In what context? How is jihad defined?
9. What is the party’s position on the Israel/Palestine conflict?
10. Does the party mention an anti-corruption stance in its platform?
11. Does the party platform propose banning interest based banking?
12. Is the party platform accepting of a free market economy?
13. Is the party platform encouraging towards foreign investment?